Every homeowner strives to equip your home with maximum comfort. And if possible to connect to the centralized communications are not available, it is necessary to build a local system of water supply and sewage. In the regeneration of the local sewage system is often based septic tank, as this setting is much more practical and safer latrines. It can be bought ready to install, and it is possible to completely build your own. Consider how the arrangement of the septic tank, if it all works to produce with their hands. Every year more and more citizens seek to acquire suburban housing. Stay out of the city has lots of advantages, and one major drawback – the lack of a centralized sewage systems.
However, the lack of sanitation is not a reason to abandon the usual level of comfort. To equip their homes with a full set of sanitary ware, is to build a local system of disposal of sewage, that is, to build a septic tank for a country house.
The benefits of using a septic tank
I must say that build quality and well-functioning septic tank on the site – it is quite a difficult task. Why homeowners choose this option rather than the construction of local sewers, refusing to build more simple in execution cesspool? The thing is that the septic tank has many advantages and conveniences:
Cesspool on the site is the source of odor. Properly constructed septic tank to circulate odors;
Septic tank has a limited capacity, when a large flow of water it will be filled very quickly, so you have to call the vacuum every few days, and it is quite expensive. In the same septic tank water just accumulates and undergoes a process of purification, so pumping the waste from it will have to produce much less frequently, about once a year;
A septic tank is more environmentally safe. When using unpressurized (filter) cesspools very high risk of falling into the ground polluted water, and that can have a devastating impact on the ecological balance of the area;
A long service life.
In septic tanks sewage treatment is carried out in several stages, so the installation should consist of two or three chambers. In the first chamber undergoes settling and starts the anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In subsequent chambers is the process of depositing a small, suspended particles, and ongoing biological treatment of wastewater;
Tip! Single-compartment model of septic tanks is recommended to be set at small (less than one cubic meter per day) water consumption, for example, in the country, where you plan to install the tub.
One of the basic conditions of safe operation of the septic tank is the tightness of the chambers. It is very important that contaminated water from the tanks could not penetrate the soil.
Tip! In addition, if the septic tank is constructed with high groundwater level, the tightness of the cameras will protect them from flooding from the outside.
The materials for the construction of chambers
When selecting material for construction must take into account that sewage is a fairly hostile environment, so the material used must be resistant to corrosion.
Tip! For example, use as camera metal tanks or drums is not the best choice. Even with careful anti-corrosion treatment such a structure is unlikely to last more than 5-6 years.
At independent construction of septic tanks it is advisable to use the following materials:
The reinforced concrete. There are two options: buying ready-made manhole rings or monolithic construction of the septic tank. The device of the septic tank is less time-consuming, however, requires the use of lifting equipment. In addition, selecting the option with the rings, you will need to devote time to seal the chambers in the joints of the individual elements;
Brick. If the handyman has experience in laying bricks, build a brick camera, he will be able to quickly. The camera in this case can be both round and rectangular. Brick camera will need to be carefully bond two, as a brick laying not too tight;
Tip! When choosing the material for the construction of brick septic tank, you must take a certain kind of material, namely the clinker. This grade of brick is made of fired clay, so it is not destroyed by the action of water. But the conventional porous or sand-lime brick is not recommended.
Plastic. If a master has finished plastic containers required volume, the construction of the septic tank will be extremely simple and convenient. Most often, for the construction of the chambers of the pallet containers are used.
Having defined the materials that will be used for construction, you can begin designing. You will need to calculate the volume of cameras and choose the right location for the construction of treatment plants.
To properly calculate the amount of cameras, it is important to know how a septic tank. The main method of purification used in the septic tanks are settling, so it is important that the water had been in the camera for quite a long time. Otherwise, the impurities contained in the wastewater just don’t have time to sink to the bottom.
The drains were in the septic tank for a long time, the camera must accommodate the volume of wastewater generated in the house for three days.
When performing calculations, as a rule, make that one person a day consumes about 200 liters of water. To learn daily consumption, it is necessary to multiply this figure by the number of residents in the house.
Typically, when constructing Sewerage for private homes erected a two-chamber septic tanks. Wherein the first chamber, acting as a receiver and a primary treatment should account for 75% of total.
However, the last rule is not feasible in all cases. For example, construction of septic tank of concrete rings or cubic containers, provides that all cameras will be of equal volume.
The choice of the construction site
It is essential that treatment plant was removed at the maximum distance from a well or borehole. According to the norms, the minimum distance should be 20-50 meters, depending on the composition of the soil. Thus, with the construction of a septic tank on the sand, which is perfectly water tight, you need to choose the maximum distance.
Of course, it is not necessary to have a septic tank and directly from home. This is due not only to the fact that sewer systems not smell the roses, but and the need to protect the Foundation of the house from flooding. Building codes recommend to build a septic tank, removing it from the house to a distance of not less than 6 metres.
In addition, when selecting the construction site, you will need to take into account the need for periodic cleaning of the chamber from the septic tank of sludge, that is, you need to make sure that the travel vacuum trucks.
Consider how the construction of a septic tank. The whole process can be divided into the following stages:
The construction of the chambers and the supply pipe;
The construction of the filtration fields.
This stage is perhaps the most time-consuming, unless of course the homeowner is not possible to use earth-moving equipment. You will need to prepare:
A pit for a sewage treatment plant. Its size and shape will depend on the selected material of construction;
Trenches for the laying of pipes, and in the construction of trenches to withstand a slope of 2 cm, it is necessary to ensure that water could move through the pipes by gravity.
At the bottom of the pit and pipes, you must perform a cushioning bed of sand and crushed stone with a height of 20 cm in addition, the bottom of the excavation to install cameras sumps will be concreted. This will prevent seepage of effluent into the soil.
Work at this stage depends on the selected material. Easiest way to build a camera from manhole rings and cubic containers. First mounted one above the other with the help of a crane arm or other lifting equipment. When you use of packaging pre-prepared for connecting the tank just installed in the pit.
If the camera is assembled from bricks or well rings, it will be necessary to hold events for waterproofing. As a rule, is used for this purpose penetrating sealant based on bitumen. The top chamber of the septic tank is covered by a slab, you will need to leave a hole for cleaning the manhole and install a vent pipe.
Construction field filtering
At the last stage produces the device absorption fields for septic tanks. Will need to dig a few trenches (with a bias), fill them with a mixture of sand and gravel (thickness of the filtering layer at least 1 meter). In the trench lay pipe with perforations. On them will be fed clarified water discharged from the septic tank. Passing through the soil filter, the water will finally be cleared.
Thus, the device of the septic tank is quite responsible and very time-consuming exercise. However, the result of the work performed will allow to equip the house with minimal effort.